May Day School, 27 - 30 April 2015
Ever since the rise of Italian fascism and German Nazism in the first part of 20th Century and up till today the term fascism comprised the terminological core of left-wing (especially socialist) theoretical and political projects. In the first part of 20th century this term was used to characterize both Italian and German regimes or even any regimes and movements that mimicked German Nazism or Italian fascism. On the political front the term was used as a swearword, which is why its use probably expanded as much as it did. With regards to this it is instructive to remember Stalin, who angrily denounced social democracy as but the “moderate wing of fascism”. The concept of fascism thus rapidly lost its analytical value: it was either used as such an abstract concept that it could cover an unlimited amount of political actors or phenomena, or it stifled a sober-minded reflection and evoked primarily emotional responses with its denunciatory tone.